Graphics

Drawing images

Images can be drawn onto a JComponent using the drawImage method of class Graphics:

loading an image

BufferedImage img;
try {
    img = ImageIO.read(new File("stackoverflow.jpg"));
} catch (IOException e) {
    throw new RuntimeException("Could not load image", e);
}

drawing the image

@Override
protected void paintComponent(Graphics g) {
    super.paintComponent(g);

    int x = 0;
    int y = 0;

    g.drawImage(img, x, y, this);
}

The x and y specify the location of the top-left of the image.

Using the Graphics class

Intro

The Graphics class allows you to draw onto java components such as a Jpanel, it can be used to draw strings, lines, shapes and images. This is done by overriding the paintComponent(Graphics g) method of the JComponent you are drawing on using the Graphics object received as argument to do the drawing:

class Board

import java.awt.*;
import javax.swing.*;

public class Board extends JPanel{
    
    public Board() {
        setBackground(Color.WHITE);
    }

    @override
    public Dimension getPreferredSize() {
        return new Dimension(400, 400);
    }
    
    public void paintComponent(Graphics g) {
        super.paintComponent(g);
        // draws a line diagonally across the screen
        g.drawLine(0, 0, 400, 400);
        // draws a rectangle around "hello there!"
        g.drawRect(140, 180, 115, 25);
    }        
}

wrapper class DrawingCanvas

import javax.swing.*;

public class DrawingCanvas extends JFrame {
    
    public DrawingCanvas() {
        
        Board board = new Board();
        
        add(board); // adds the Board to our JFrame    
        pack(); // sets JFrame dimension to contain subcomponents
        
        setResizable(false);
        setTitle("Graphics Test");
        setDefaultCloseOperation(WindowConstants.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
        
        setLocationRelativeTo(null); // centers window on screen
    }
    
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DrawingCanvas canvas = new DrawingCanvas();
        canvas.setVisible(true);
    }
}

Colors

To draw shapes with different colors you must set the color of the Graphics object before each draw call using setColor:

g.setColor(Color.BLUE);  // draws a blue square
g.fillRect(10, 110, 100, 100);

g.setColor(Color.RED);  // draws a red circle
g.fillOval(10, 10, 100, 100);

g.setColor(Color.GREEN);  // draws a green triangle
int[] xPoints = {0, 200, 100};
int[] yPoints = {100, 100, 280};
g.fillPolygon(xPoints, yPoints, 3);

Using the Repaint Method to Create Basic Animation

The MyFrame class the extends JFrame and also contains the main method

import javax.swing.JFrame;


public class MyFrame extends JFrame{

    //main method called on startup
    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
    
        //creates a frame window
        MyFrame frame = new MyFrame();
    
        //very basic game loop where the graphics are re-rendered
        while(true){
            frame.getPanel().repaint();
        
            //The program waits a while before rerendering
            Thread.sleep(12);
        }
    }

    //the MyPanel is the other class and it extends JPanel
    private MyPanel panel;

    //constructor that sets some basic staring values
    public MyFrame(){
        this.setSize(500, 500);
        this.setLocationRelativeTo(null);
        this.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
    
        //creates the MyPanel with paramaters of x=0 and y=0
        panel = new MyPanel(0,0);
        //adds the panel (which is a JComponent because it extends JPanel) 
        //into the frame 
        this.add(panel);
        //shows the frame window
        this.setVisible(true);
    }
 
    //gets the panel 
    public MyPanel getPanel(){
        return panel;
    }

}

The MyPanel class that extends JPanel and has the paintComponent method

import java.awt.Graphics;
import javax.swing.JPanel;


public class MyPanel extends JPanel{

    //two int variables to store the x and y coordinate 
    private int x;
    private int y;

    //construcor of the MyPanel class
    public MyPanel(int x, int y){
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
    }

    /*the method that deals with the graphics 
        this method is called when the component is first loaded, 
         when the component is resized and when the repaint() method is 
        called for this component
    */
    @Override
    public void paintComponent(Graphics g){
        super.paintComponent(g);

        //changes the x and y varible values
        x++;
        y++;

        //draws a rectangle at the x and y values
        g.fillRect(x, y, 50, 50);
    }

}